原創翻譯:龍騰網 //www.oewjxg.com.cn 翻譯:tangerl 轉載請注明出處



Films about ancient Greece such as Troy, Helen of Troy, and 300, have used actors who are of Anglo-Saxon or Celtic ancestry (e.g. Brad Pitt, Gerard Butler). films about ancient Rome, such as Gladiator and HBO’s series Rome, have done the same (e.g. Russell Crowe). Were the directors right, from an historical point of view? Were the ancient Greeks and Romans of North European stock?

關于古希臘的電影,如《特洛伊城的海倫》和《300勇士》 ,使用的演員都有盎格魯-撒克遜或凱爾特血統( 如布拉德皮特、杰拉德巴特勒)。
關于古羅馬的電影,例如《角斗士》和 HBO 的電視劇《羅馬》 ,也是一樣的( 例如《羅素 · 克勞》),從歷史的角度來看,導演們是對的嗎? 古希臘人和古羅馬人是北歐人嗎?

Most classical historians today are silent on the subject. For example, Paul Cartledge, a professor of Greek culture at Cambridge, writes about his specialty, Sparta, for educated but non-academic readers, yet nowhere that I can find does he discuss the racial origins of the Spartans. Some years ago I asked several classics professors about the race of the ancient Greeks only to be met with shrugs that suggested that no one knew, and that it was not something worth looking into. Today, an interest in the race of the ancients seems to be taken as an unhealthy sign, and any evidence of their Nordic origins discounted for fear it might give rise to dangerous sentiments.

今天大多數古典歷史學家對這個問題保持沉默。
例如,劍橋大學的希臘文化教授保羅 · 卡特利奇,為受過教育但非學術性的讀者撰寫了他的專著《斯巴達》,但我找不到他討論斯巴達人種族起源的文章。
幾年前,我向幾位古典學教授詢問古希臘人的種族問題時,他們只是聳了聳肩,表示沒有人知道,也不值得研究。
今天,對古人種族的興趣似乎被視為一種不健康的跡象,任何關于他們的北歐起源的證據都被忽視了,因為他們害怕這會引起危險的情緒。

A hundred years ago, however, Europeans took it for granted that many Greeks and Romans were the same race as themselves. The famed 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Brittanica, published in 1911, noted that “survival of fair hair and complexion and light eyes among the upper classes in Thebes and some other localities shows that the blond type of mankind which is characteristic of north-western Europe had already penetrated into Greek lands before classical times.” It added that the early Greeks, or Hellenes, were Nordic, one of “the fair-haired tribes of upper Europe known to the ancients as Keltoi.” Sixty years ago even Bertrand Russell, the British philosopher and socialist, believed that the Hellenes “were fair-haired invaders from the North, who brought the Greek language with them” (History of Western Philosophy, 1946).



In fact, there was a good basis for the 1911 Britannica to write about blonds in Thebes. Thebes was the leading city of Boeotia, a rich agricultural region in south-central Greece. Fragments from an ancient 150 BC travelogue describe the women of Thebes as “the tallest, prettiest, and most graceful in all of Hellas. Their yellow hair is tied up in a knot on the top of their head.” Pindar, a fifth century Theban lyric poet, refers to the Greeks as “the fair-haired Danaoi,” using a poetical name for the Hellenes. Likewise, in his Partheneia, or “Maiden Songs,” the seventh century BC Spartan poet Alcman, praised the beauty of Spartan female athletes, with their “golden hair” and “violet eyes.” He also wrote of Spartan women with “silver eyes,” meaning light gray. The seventh-century BC Greek poet Archilochus praises the “yellow hair” of one of his lovers, and Sappho — also of the seventh century BC — writes of her “beautiful daughter, golden like a flower.”

事實上,1911年的《大英百科全書》對底比斯的金發女郎有很好的描寫基礎。
底比斯是希臘中南部富饒的農業區 維奧蒂亞(古希臘一城邦) 的主要城市,公元前150年的一份古代游記中的一些片段將底比斯的女人描述為“全希臘最高、最漂亮、最優雅的女人,她們將金色頭發在頭頂打結?!?
五世紀底比斯抒情詩人品達把希臘人稱為“金發的達納伊 ” ,用一個詩意的名字來稱呼希臘人。
同樣的,公元前七世紀的斯巴達詩人阿爾克曼在他的《 帕特尼里亞 》中,贊美了斯巴達女運動員的美麗,她們有著“金色的頭發”和“紫色的眼睛” ,他還寫到斯巴達婦女有“銀色的眼睛” ,意思是淺灰色。
公元前7世紀的希臘詩人阿爾基洛科斯贊揚他的一個情人的“黃頭發” ,同樣來自前7世紀的莎孚(古代希臘的女詩人)寫到她美麗的女兒“金黃如花”。

As late as the fourth century AD, Adamantius, an Alexandrian physician and scientist, wrote in his Physiognominica, that “of all the nations the Greeks have the fairest eyes,” adding, that “wherever the Hellenic and Ionic race has been kept pure, we see tall men of fairly broad and straight build,… of fairly light skin, and blond.” Several centuries of mixing had presumably changed the racial character of many Greeks, but blonds still survived, and Xanthos, which means “yellow” in Greek, was a common personal name.

直到公元四世紀,亞歷山大的醫生和科學家阿達曼提烏斯在他的《相面》(Physiognominica) 一書中寫道,“希臘人的眼睛是所有民族中最美麗的,”他還補充道,“在任何保持希臘和愛奧尼亞種族純凈的地方,我們都能看到身材高大、體格寬闊、皮膚白皙、金發碧眼的人?!?br /> 幾個世紀的混居生活大概改變了許多希臘人的種族特征,但金發人仍然存活了下來,而“Xanthos”在希臘語中的意思是“黃色”,是一個常見的個人名字。

Professor Nell Painter of Princeton, author of The History of White People (see “Whiting Out White People,” AR, July 2010), complains that “not a few Westerners have attempted to racialize antiquity, making ancient history into white race history.” She points out that the Greeks often painted their marble statues — “the originals were often dark in color” — that the paint wore off over time, and Europeans mistakenly concluded from the white marble that the Greeks were white.

《白人的歷史》一書的作者、普林斯頓大學教授內爾·佩因特抱怨說,“不少西方人試圖把古代的東西種族化,把古代的歷史變成了白人的歷史?!?br /> 她指出,希臘人經常為他們的大理石雕像上色——“原來的大理石雕像通常是深色的”隨著時間的推移,顏料會逐漸褪色——歐洲人錯誤地從白色大理石推斷希臘人是白皮膚。

Yes, the Greeks painted their statues, but the originals were not dark. Praxiteles’ Aphrodite, from the Greek city of Knidos, was the most famous and most copied statue in the ancient world. Hundreds of copies survive. Experts have determined from microscopic paint particles that Aphrodite was painted blonde. The Romans had their own name for this goddess, Venus, and likewise her “cult images” were ubiquitous and “painted with pale-coloured flesh and golden-blonde hair” (see Joanna Pitman’s On Blondes, 2003).

是的,希臘人會給他們的雕像上色,但是他們的祖先并不是深色皮膚。
普拉克西特利斯的阿芙羅狄蒂來自希臘城市克尼多斯,是古代世界最著名和復制最多的雕像。
大量的副本幸存下來,專家們從顯微鏡下的油漆粒子中確定阿芙羅狄蒂是被漆成金黃色的。
羅馬人對這位女神有自己的名字,維納斯,同樣她的“崇拜形象”無處不在,“蒼白的肉體和金色的頭發 ”(見喬安娜·皮特曼的《論金發女郎》,2003)。



There is more evidence of the appearance of the Greeks. Xenophanes, an Ionian Greek philosopher who lived in the fifth century BC, was amused to note that different peoples believed that the gods look like themselves: “Our gods have flat noses and black skins, say the Ethiopians. The Thracians (despite Prof. Cohen’s observations above) say our gods have red hair and hazel eyes.” Indeed, a fourth century BC fresco of a Thracian woman, found in the Ostrusha Mound in central Bulgaria, shows distinctly red hair and European features.

關于希臘人的出現有更多的證據。
生活在公元前五世紀的愛奧尼亞希臘哲學家色諾芬尼發現,不同的民族相信神長得像他們自己,他覺得很有趣,
埃塞俄比亞人說,我們的神有扁平的鼻子和黑色的皮膚,色雷斯人( 暫不討論科恩教授的觀察 ) 說我們的神有紅頭發和淡褐色的眼睛。事實上,在保加利亞中部的奧斯托羅沙土堆中發現的一幅公元前4世紀的壁畫上,一位色雷斯婦女有著紅色的頭發,歐洲人的特征十分明顯。

The Greek poet Hesiod (c. 700 BC) called Troy the “land of fair women.” According to the Roman historian Diodorus Sicilus, who lived in the first century BC, the Egyptian god Set had “reddish hair,” a color that was “rare in Egypt, but common among the Hellenes.” Plutarch (46–120 AD) tells us that while the Theban general Pelopidas (d. 364 BC) was campaigning in central Greece, he had a dream in which a ghost urged him to sacrifice a red-haired virgin if he wished to be victorious in the next day’s battle.

希臘詩人赫西奧德 ( 公元前700年) 稱特洛伊為“ 美麗女人的土地” 根據羅馬前1世紀的歷史學家狄奧多羅斯·西西盧斯的說法,埃及的塞特神有“微紅的頭發” ,這種顏色“在埃及很少見,但在希臘人中很常見”, 普魯塔克 ( 公元46-120年) 告訴我們,底比斯將軍佩洛皮達斯 ( 公元前364年) 在希臘中部作戰時,他做了一個夢,夢中一個鬼魂催促他貢獻一個紅發處女,如果他希望在第二天的戰斗中獲勝的話。

Two racial types
There were two racial types in ancient Greece: dark-haired whites and fair-haired whites, as well as gradations in between. The earliest known inhabitants were of the former type. These included the Minoans, who were not Greeks at all, and who built an impressive civilization on the island of Crete. The Pelasgians, which is the name later Greeks gave to the pre-Hellenic population of mainland Greece, were also dark. They tended to have black, curly hair and olive-shaped eyes. Their type is plainly visible on many Attic (Athenian) vases, and has lead some scholars to conclude that all Greeks looked as they did.

兩個種族類型
古希臘有兩個人種:黑發白人和金發白人,以及介于兩者之間的等級,已知最早的居民屬于前一種類型。
其中包括米諾斯人,他們根本不是希臘人,他們在克里特島上建立了令人印象深刻的文明。
佩拉斯吉人 ( 后來希臘人給希臘大陸以前的居民起的名字 ) 也是黑發,他們往往有黑色的卷發和橄欖色的眼睛。
他們的種族類型在許多雅典人的花瓶上清晰可見,這使得一些學者得出結論,認為所有的希臘人看起來都是這個樣子。

Neither the Minoans nor the Pelasgians spoke Greek — the linear A inscxtions of the Minoans have still not been deciphered — so the Greek language must have arrived with the light-haired conquerors who migrated from the north, most likely from the middle Danube River Valley. According to Greek national myth, the Hellenes were descended from Hellen (not to be confused with Helen of Troy), the son of Deucalion. Hellen had sons and grandsons, who correspond to the four main tribal divisions of ancient Greece: the Aeolians Achaeans, Ionians, and Dorians.

無論是米諾斯人還是比利時人,都不會說希臘語——米諾斯人的 a 線性至今尚未被破譯——因此,希臘語一定是和那些從北方遷徙而來的淺色頭發的征服者一起來到這里的,他們很可能來自多瑙河流域中部。
根據希臘國家神話,希臘人是海倫( 不要和特洛伊的海倫混淆 ) 的后裔,他是丟卡利翁的兒子,海倫有兒子和孫子,他們分屬于古希臘的四個主要部落: 埃奧利亞人、亞該亞人、伊奧尼亞人和多里安人。

Scholars today tend to dismiss such myths but they would not have survived if they had not been generally consistent with the long folk memories of ancient peoples. In this case they point to what classical scholars have long believed was a series of Hellenic descents upon mainland Greece and the Aegean islands. The first Hellenes to arrive were the Ionians and Aeolians; then a few centuries later, the Achaeans, and finally the Dorians.

今天的學者傾向于摒棄這些神話,但是如果它們沒有與古代民族的長期民間記憶基本一致,它們就不會存在。
在這種情況下, 他們指出了古典學者長期以來所認為的希臘大陸和愛琴海島嶼的一系列衰落。
第一批到達的希臘人是伊奧尼亞人和埃奧利安人,然后是幾個世紀之后的亞該亞人,最后是多利安人。
青銅時代早期的希臘文明 ( 公元前1600-1200年) 肯定受到米諾斯文明和其他東地中海文化的影響,但毫無疑問,它是希臘文明。

The early bronze-age Greek civilization (1600-1200 BC) was certainly influenced by Minoan and other eastern Mediterranean cultures, but it was unmistakably Greek. Linear B, which began to dominate Cretan culture around 1500 BC, has been deciphered and found to be an early form of Greek. Around the year 1200 BC this culture, known as Mycenaean, collapsed; its cities were destroyed and abandoned, and Greece entered a 400-year Dark Age. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions probably played a part in the destruction, and later Greeks attributed it to invasions from the north. Waves of Hellenic warriors swept down and burned the Mycenaean citadels and became the ruling race in Greece. They also sacked the city of Troy, and Homer’s Iliad is about them. They also seem to have snuffed out much of Mycenaean culture: Greeks stopped writing, and abandoned the arts, urban life, and trade with the outside world.

公元前1500年左右開始主宰克里特文化的線性b,已被破譯并發現是希臘文化的早期形式。
大約在公元前1200年,這種被稱為邁錫尼的文化崩潰了,它的城市被摧毀和遺棄,希臘進入了400年的黑暗時代。 地震和火山爆發可能是造成破壞的原因之一,后來希臘人將其歸因于北方的入侵。
一波又一波的希臘戰士橫掃并焚燒邁錫尼的城堡,成為希臘的統治者。
他們還洗劫了特洛伊城,荷馬的《伊利亞特》就是關于他們的,他們似乎也扼殺了大部分邁錫尼文明:希臘人停止了寫作,放棄了藝術、城市生活和與外部世界的貿易。

We know something about the early Hellenes from the Iliad. It was first written down in the late eighth century BC, at the end of the Greek Dark Age, after the Phoenicians taught the Greeks how to write again. It recounts events some four to five hundred years earlier. Although we think of the poem as being about the Greeks, Homer’s warrior heroes belong to the Achaean nobility, which suggests that it was the Achaeans who overthrew Mycenaean civilization, not the Dorians, who would descend upon Greece and displace the Achaeans a hundred years later. Archeology confirms this supposition, for Troy was burned around 1200 BC, and the traditional date for the Trojan War is 1184 BC. The Dorian invasion is dated by various ancient historians at 1149, 1100, or 1049 BC.

我們從《伊利亞特》中知道一些關于早期希臘人的情況。
最早是在公元前8世紀晚期,也就是希臘黑暗時代的末期,腓尼基人教希臘人如何重新書寫。
它敘述了大約四五百年前的事件,盡管我們認為這首詩是關于希臘人的,但荷馬史詩中的戰士英雄屬于亞該亞的貴族,這表明推翻邁錫尼文明的是亞該亞人,而不是多利安人,他們在一百年后突襲希臘并取代亞該亞人。
考古學證實了這一假設,因為特洛伊城大約在公元前1200年被燒毀,而特洛伊戰爭的傳統日期是公元前1184年。 多位古代歷史學家認為,多利安人的入侵可以追溯到公元前1149年、1100年或1049年。

There is good reason to think that Homer was recording stories handed down during the Dark Age. He was a bard who lived in Ionia, a region on the Aegean coast of what is now Turkey, and if he were making the stories up he would have claimed that the heroes were Ionian. Instead, he sings praises to the light-haired Achaean nobility: Achilles, their greatest warrior, has “red-gold hair,” Odysseus, their greatest strategist, has “chestnut hair,” his wife Penelope has “white cheeks the color of pure snow,” Agamede, a healer and expert on medicinal plants, is “blonde,” and King Menelaus of Sparta, the husband of Helen, has “red hair.” Helen, likewise, has “fair hair,” and even slave girls are light-skinned: “fair-tressed Hecamede,” “fair-cheeked Chryseis,” and “blonde Briseis.” This is significant, for if even some of the slaves were blond it would mean the Nordic type was not unique to the Achaeans, that it was present elsewhere in the Aegean world.

我們有充分的理由認為荷馬記錄的是黑暗時代流傳下來的故事。
他是一個吟游詩人,生活在現在的土耳其的愛琴海沿岸的愛奧尼亞地區,如果他在編故事,他會聲稱英雄是愛奧尼亞人,相反,他歌頌淺發的亞該亞貴族:
阿喀琉斯,他們最偉大的戰士,有著“紅金色的頭發”, 奧德修斯,他們最偉大的戰略家,有著“栗色的頭發” ,他的妻子佩內洛普有著“潔白如雪的臉頰” , 阿加米德,一位藥用植物的醫生和專家,是“金發” ,斯巴達國王墨涅拉俄斯,海倫的丈夫,有著“紅色的頭發” ,同樣地,海倫有著“金色的頭發” ,甚至奴隸女孩也是淺膚色: “白皙的赫卡梅德”、“白皙的克萊塞斯”和“金發碧眼的布里塞伊斯”
這是非常重要的,因為如果有些奴隸都是金發的,這也意味著北歐人種的特征并不是亞該亞人所獨有的,在愛琴海世界的其他地方也存在。

Homer (and Pindar) describe most of the Olympian gods and goddesses as fair haired and “bright eyed,” meaning blue, grey or green. The goddess Demeter has “blond” or “yellow hair,” as does Leto, mother of Apollo, who is also described as “golden haired.” Aphrodite has “pale-gold” hair, and Athena is known as “the fair, bright-eyed one” and the “grey-eyed goddess.” Two of the gods, Poseidon and Hephaestus, are described as having black hair. As noted above, Xenophanes complained that all peoples imagine the gods to look like themselves.

荷馬(和品達)描述大多數奧林匹亞的神和女神為金發和“明亮的眼睛” ,意思是藍色,灰色或綠色。
得墨忒耳女神是“金發”或“黃發” ,阿波羅的母親萊托也是如此,她也被描述為“金發”, 阿芙羅狄蒂有“淺金色”的頭發,而雅典娜則被描述為“美麗、明亮的眼睛”和“灰色眼睛的女神” 波塞冬和赫菲斯托斯是眾神中的兩位,他們的頭發是黑色的,正如上所述色諾芬尼所抱怨的,所有的種族都把神想象成他們自己的樣子。

It was the Dorians, the last Greek invaders, who ended Achaean rule and probably provoked a mass migration of Aeolian and Ionian Hellenes — no doubt including Homer’s ancestors — across the Aegean Sea to the coast of Asia Minor. The Dorians who settled in the fertile valley of the Eurotas in the southern Peloponnesus were the direct ancestors of the Spartans of the classical age, and they claimed to be the only pure Dorians.



Thus, classical Greece was a fusion, both cultural and racial, of these two types of whites. Some city-states, such as Thebes and Sparta, were predominantly Nordic. Others, such as Athens, were predominantly Mediterranean, and still others were mixtures of the two.

因此,古典希臘是這兩種白人在文化和種族上的融合。
一些城邦,如底比斯和斯巴達,主要是北歐人,其他人,如雅典,主要是地中海人,還有一些人是兩者的混合。

Ananias Dare says:
We know something about the early Hellenes from the Iliad. It was first written down in the late eighth century BC, at the end of the Greek Dark Age, after the Phoenicians taught the Greeks how to write again.

“ 我們從《伊利亞特》中知道一些關于早期希臘人的情況。
最早是在公元前8世紀晚期,也就是希臘黑暗時代的末期,腓尼基人教希臘人如何重新書寫?!?br />
Well, there’s much debate on this point, but most of the studies that I have read indicate that the Iliad was probably not written down until the 6th century BC during the reign of Peisistratos. The 8th century BC is commonly regarded as marking the period when the oral composition of the Iliad( and the Odyssey) reached its final stage.

——關于這一點有很多爭論,但我讀到的大多數研究表明,《伊利亞特》可能直到公元前6世紀庇西特拉托斯統治時期才被寫下來,公元前8世紀通常被認為是《伊利亞特》(和《奧德賽》)的口述創作達到最后階段的時期。