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Soft power superpower

(原標題)軟實力超級大國

Global trends in cultural engagement and influence

(副標題)全球文化參與與文化影響力變化趨勢

Author: Alistair MacDonald

作者:阿利斯泰爾·麥克唐納

China
As part of its international strategy, China has been investing enormous sums on soft power, rapidly expanding its global reach and influence.

【中國篇】
作為其國際戰略的一部分,中國一直都在大舉投資軟實力,快速擴張其全球覆蓋面和影響力。

China sees soft power as crucial to its peaceful rise and to building its vision for a new world order, creating and building a ‘community of common destiny’. It has been estimated that China spends about $US10 billion 3 annually on soft power initiatives; by comparison the US State Department budget for public diplomacy stood at $666 million in 2014 and, as a result of the Trump administration’s 30 per cent reduction to the State Department budget, is set to fall below $550 million in 2018.

在中國眼中,軟實力對于其和平崛起乃至構建符合其愿景的新世界秩序都是至關重要的,它還創造構建出了一個“人類命運共同體”。據估計,中國每年在軟實力倡議上的花費約達100億美元,相比之下,美國國務院分配給公共外交的預算在2014年達到6.66億美元,而由于特朗普政府砍掉了30%的國務院預算,這樣,2018年的預算就勢必會降至5.55億美元以下。

Since 2004 China’s Ministry of Education has established over 500 government funded Confucius Institutes in 140 countries, many of which are based in universities with staff employed by the host university. This includes an increase of almost 200 Institutes in the past five years alone. These largely offer language classes, although there is often a broader cultural offer and an increasing focus on specialist areas of study, for example traditional Chinese medicine and sports therapy. China has also set up more than 1,000 Confucius Classrooms and school-based language hubs in foreign schools, providing them with teachers, materials and funding to help younger children learn Mandarin and experience Chinese culture. Students around the world are flocking to learn Mandarin, recognising it as the language of the future, something that should give pause to complacent anglophone societies that think they need no longer bother learning foreign languages.



In 2010 the Chinese government put on more than 100 Chinese New Year events in cities around the world. In 2017 it sponsored some 2,000 of them in 140 countries to mark the Year of the Chicken, with London’s event the largest worldwide. 4 Chinese culture is permeating around the world, driven by huge (largely private sector) investments in films and creative industries.

2010年時,中國政府在全世界各大城市中舉辦了一百多場中國新年活動。在2017年,它在140個國家贊助了這類活動中的約2000場,以慶祝雞年,在倫敦舉辦的活動是全世界規模最大的。中國文化正在滲透全世界,而這是由對電影和創意產業的海量投資(私營企業占到其中的大部分)驅動的。

This outreach programme is having a real impact in perceptions of China around the world. The Pew Research Center has, for example, found that more than 50 per cent of those aged 18–29 in Nigeria and Ghana enjoy Chinese music, television and films. American and European cultural dominance may be giving way to a more pluralist world with people around the world enjoying a broader cultural diet than in the past.

這種拓展和外延計劃正真切地影響著對全世界對中國的認知。比如說,皮尤研究中心已經發現:年齡在18到29歲之間的尼日利亞人和加納人中,有超過50%的人喜歡中國音樂、中國電視節目和中國電影。美國和歐洲在文化上的統治地位也許正在給一個更多元化的世界讓路,在這樣一個世界中,全世界人民享受的文化食糧比過去更為廣泛。

International students have long been encouraged to study in China, with an increasing focus in recent years on Western students. The country is now a leading destination for overseas study, close on the heels of the UK. Just one example shows the scale of China’s investment: launched in 2012, the African Talents Program5 trained an estimated 30,000 African professionals in China between 2013 and 2015, with a further 18,000 African trainees benefiting from full scholarships to study at Chinese universities under the arrangement. China has studied what has worked for the US, UK and Germany and is not only targeting the leaders and opinion formers of tomorrow to build its global influence in the years ahead, but now also lixing its scholarships to mass education, e.g. for ASEAN nations, or more widely from the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) nations. The ambition is clear, the BRI covers some 65 countries along the Silk Road Economic Belt that crosses the Eurasian continent from Luoyang to Hamburg and the Maritime Silk Road that stretches from Quanzhou to Rotterdam via the South Asia and MENA regions. The scale of China’s offer outrivals that of other schemes. The growing importance of China to other states can be seen in UK and US efforts to encourage more of their own citizens to study in the country through support for programmes like Generation UK and the US’s 100,000 Strong campaign (now 1 Million Strong). Xinhua, the government’s main news agency, opened nearly 40 new foreign bureaus between 2009 and 2011, bringing its total to 162. The number of Xinhua correspondents based overseas doubled during that time. In December 2016 the state broadcaster rebranded its international media service, calling it China Global Television Network. The investment in CGTN is specifically aimed to compete with global services such as the BBC, CNN and Al Jazeera. CGTN can be received by more than 85 million viewers in over 100 countries and regions. It includes six channels in five languages, including a 24-hour English language news service and a documentary channel. CGTN makes a distinctive offer in its global news coverage, notably a much greater and more nuanced focus on Africa than that offered by the BBC, CNN and other Asian satellite television news channels. Earlier this year China’s foreign language radio services were folded into the mix to create Voice of China. The new combined group will have close to 14,000 staff. Its potential is reflected in the reach of just one of its channels – Radio China International broadcasts in 65 languages, more than any other broadcaster. The emphasis on soft power projection was made explicitly in the announcement of the new arrangements: The main duties [of Voice of China] are to publicise the party’s theory, line, principles and policies… organise major propaganda reports, organise radio and television creation and production, produce and broadcast radio and television products, guide social hotspots, strengthen and improve public opinion supervision, promote multimedia integration development… and tell the story of China.

長久以來,國際學生來中國求學是一直受到鼓勵的,而近些年來越發專注于吸引西方學生。如今,該國緊隨英國之后,成為了海外留學的一個主要目的地。在此舉一例來說明中國的投資規模:2012年發起的“非洲人才計劃”,據估計于2013至2015年間在中國培養出了3萬名非洲專業人士,更有1萬8千名非洲實習生受益于該套安排下的全額獎學金,能在中國的大學中學習。中國研究過美國、英國、德國的那些行之有效的做法,而且不僅瞄準了明天的領導人和輿論影響者,以便在未來的時代中構建其全球影響力,而且,現在還將其獎學金與大眾教育掛鉤,比如,面向東盟國家的獎學金,或是一帶一路倡議中更為廣闊的國家和地區。

這種雄心是昭然若揭的,一帶一路倡議覆蓋了絲綢之路經濟帶上的約65個國家,橫跨了整個歐亞大陸,從洛陽一路到漢堡,外加海上絲綢之路,從泉州經由南亞和中東北非地區一路延伸到鹿特丹。中國開出的價碼,其規模打敗了其他的方案和計劃。從英國和美國鼓勵國民去該國求學的努力(通過一些諸如“英國未來計劃” 和美國的“十萬人強”運動(如今達到了百萬人)的計劃)中,可以發現中國之于其他國家不斷增長的重要性。該國政府的主要新聞社新華社,在2009至2011年間新開設了將近40家海外分社,將其總數增加到了162家。駐海外的新華社記者人數在此期間翻了一倍。2016年12月,該國的國家廣播電視臺對其國際媒體服務作了更名,改為了中國環球電視網(即中國國際電視臺CGTN)。對CGTN的投資,是專門為與諸如BBC、CNN和半島電視臺等全球服務展開競爭。



China’s investment and, in recent years, more differentiated approach to soft power, is changing opinions. According to Pew research data, the number of nations in which the US holds higher rates of favourability over China has halved from 2014–17, from 25 to 12. In the past the US had a 12 percentage point lead over China in terms of a global median, but in 2017 that lead has shrunk to just two points. In Africa for example, 72 per cent of Nigerians view China favourably and although in other countries across the continent views vary, China is generally perceived as a trusted partner and role model. 8 There is growing respect for the Chinese economic miracle and for Chinese advances in science and technology. In Latin America and much of the Middle East again China is viewed positively. China is now Brazil’s biggest trade partner and is by far the biggest trade partner for the whole African continent. Good will and trust is not only opening up opportunities for Chinese business, it is translating directly into influence. China is today making very effective use of soft power to build its international influence – especially in places that have recently been neglected by the West.

中國的投資,加上近些年來追求軟實力的更為差異化的手法,正在改變輿論風向。根據皮尤研究中心的數據,相比于中國,對美國保有更高好感度的國家數量在2014至2017年間已經從25個被腰斬為12個。在全球平均好感度方面,過去,美國對中國保有著12個百分點的領先,但在2017年,這種領先幅度已經縮水至只有2個百分點。以非洲為例,有72%的尼日利亞人對中國持正面看法,雖然這個大洲上其他國家的看法各不相同,但中國還是普遍被視為值得信任的伙伴和榜樣。對中國經濟奇跡,以及中國先進的科學技術的尊敬不斷增長。在拉丁美洲以及中東的很多地區,對中國的看法又一次呈現為正面。現在,中國是巴西最大的貿易伙伴,而且到目前為止,也是整個非洲最大的貿易伙伴。善意和信任不僅給中國企業提供了機遇,也正在直接轉化為影響力。今天的中國正在有效地利用軟實力構建其國際影響力,尤其是在最近一直被西方忽視的地區。

France
France’s networks and global presence are perhaps the closest to the UK’s in reach and depth.

【法國篇】
法國的網絡和全球存在,在廣度和深度方面可能是最接近英國的。

As new nations have arisen from former colonial holdings, cultural organisations and connections have replaced hard power institutions. There is a strong emphasis on the promotion of a shared francophone cultural identity. Through their global networks the French seek to promote the integrity of French culture and to take a position of leadership across the francophone world.

隨著新國家從前殖民地中涌現,文化組織和文化聯系已經取代了歸屬于硬實力的機構。高度重視增進法語國家同有的文化身份認同的情況是存在的。法國人尋求通過其全球網絡促進法國文化的完整性,并在整個法語世界中占據領導地位。

The meteoric rise of Emmanuel Macron has further enhanced France’s influence. The tone of the rhetoric coming out of Paris and the President’s evident internationalism and commitment to the ‘European project’ has won him admirers around the world. The Macron Presidency is heavy in symbols and grand gestures but it is underpinned by a real shift in policy towards international engagement. The new President sees diplomacy and soft power as integral to realizing his ambitious agenda. There is renewed interest in the instruments of soft power too as can be seen in the President’s speech in Ambassador’s Week 2017 which set out the new orthodoxy of French soft power and influence with a particular emphasis on La Francophonie and the role of higher education in building relations with future world leaders.

埃曼紐爾·馬克龍的迅速崛起已經進一步增強了法國的影響力。出自巴黎的豪言壯語以及這位總統身上清晰可見的國際主義,加上對“歐洲計劃”的承諾,已經讓他贏得了全世界的景仰。馬克龍的這任總統任期象征意味濃厚,也作足了姿態,但卻是由趨向于國際參與的真正政策轉變所撐持的。這位新總統把外交和軟實力看成實現其雄心勃勃的議程不可或缺的組成部分。通過該總統在2017年大使周的演說,也可以看出他重燃了對軟實力手段的興趣,該演說陳述了法國軟實力和法國影響力的新正統,特別強調了法語國家,以及在和未來世界領導者建立關系中高等教育所發揮的作用。



France is the most popular country in the world for international tourists with 89 million arrivals in 2017. 12 Tourists flock to Paris for the culture, cuisine, shopping and the romance of the City of Light. The Louvre, the Eiffel Tower and Europe’s top tourist destination, Disneyland, are all part of the draw. Gastronomic diplomacy is also part of the mix with Michelin starred chefs in high demand. French culture is essential to France’s international attractiveness. The opening of the Louvre Abu Dhabi is the latest example of French cultural diplomacy and reflects a new trend in nation branding. The big French institutions are following the example of luxury brands LVMH and Kering in exporting themselves to the high growth regions of Asia and the Gulf. The Louvre Abu Dhabi will be followed by the Shanghai Pompidou Centre.

法國是全世界國際游客最為青睞的目的地國家,2017年有8900萬人前往。游客大量涌入巴黎,為的是它的文化、美食、購物以及光之城的浪漫氣息。盧浮宮,埃菲爾鐵塔以及歐洲排名居首的游客目的地迪斯尼樂園,都構成了其吸引力的一部分。美食外交也是交往的一部分,其米其林星級大廚是頗為緊俏的。對于法國的國際吸引力來說,法國文化是居于樞要地位的。阿布扎比盧浮宮博物館的開放是法國文化外交的最新范例,并且反映出了一種打造國家品牌的新趨勢。這家大型法國文化機構在向亞洲高速增長的地區以及海灣地區輸出時,遵循的是奢侈品品牌路易威登(LVMH)和開云集團(Kering)的范例。緊隨阿布扎比盧浮宮的將會是上海蓬皮杜中心。

(譯注:2007年,阿聯酋與法國簽約,決定合建阿布扎比盧浮宮。2017年11月11日,盧浮宮阿布扎比博物館向公眾開放)

Cultural diplomacy is formally the responsibility of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs which operates the Institut Fran?ais, the cultural equivalent of the Alliance Fran?aise. The Institut has an extensive global network of cultural centres around the world. The French government has entrusted the Institut with promoting French culture abroad through artistic exchanges in the performing arts, visual arts, architecture, French literature, film, technology and ideas. The Institut organises cultural seasons, festivals and cultural collaborations.

文化外交由法國外交部正式負責,后者運營著法國學院,相當于文化領域的法語聯盟。該學院在全世界擁有一張文化中心組成的巨大網絡。法國政府已經委托該學院通過藝術交流向海外推廣法國文化,包括表演藝術、視覺藝術、建筑學、法國文學、電影、技術和創意。該學院組織了文化季、文化節和文化合作。

As with other European cultural institutions, the emphasis is very much on bilateral cultural exchange whether it is the France–Korea Year, the Paris–New York Tandem or 2018’s France–Israel Year. 2017’s France–Colombia Year typifies the bilateral approach – the first six months saw the French Season in Colombia, followed by the Colombian Season in France in the second half of the year. Much like the British Council, the Institut co-ordinates the French pavilions at major events such as the Venice Biennales for the visual arts and architecture and the S?o Paulo International Architecture Biennial. The Institut Fran?ais is also involved in identifying and promoting art scenes and offers opportunities for developing constructive relationships between professional communities in France and abroad.

與其他歐洲文化機構一樣,把很大一部分重頭放在了雙邊文化交流上,無論是法國-韓國年,巴黎-紐約串聯,還是2018年的法國-以色列年,都是如此。2017年的法國-哥倫比亞年具有典型的雙邊手法特點,前六個月看到的是哥倫比亞的法國季,接著是下半年在法國的哥倫比亞季。很像英國文化委員會的是,該學院會在重大事件中負責協調法國館,比如威尼斯視覺藝術和建筑學雙年展,以及圣保羅國際建筑雙年展。法國學院也參與鑒識和推廣藝術現場,并為法國和海外的專業社群之間發展建設性關系提供機會。

Created in 2010, Campus France has some similarities to Germany’s DAAD and EducationUSA. It operates 255 offices and branches in 124 countries and promotes study in France to prospective students. 13 Unlike the DAAD it does not offer scholarships or grants to students, its role is focused on promotion and facilitation, for example through academic fairs and support for visa applications. The French MFA does offer international scholarships for students like the Eiffel Excellence Scholarships for master’s and PhD students and the Excellence-Major Scholarships. Much like similar British and American schemes the focus is on the policymakers and leaders of the future, ‘the brightest and best’.



France has long been a smart power, globally engaged, influential and known for a distinct approach to international relations. President Macron’s ambitions, if realised, could successfully position France as a key leader of global opinion.

法國長久以來一直是一個明智的大國,參與全球事務,富有影響力,并以處理國際關系的獨特方式而聞名。馬克龍的雄心如果能實現,將能成功地讓法國取得全球關鍵性意見領袖的地位。