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China Just Launched Its Huge And Incredibly Quickly Built Amphibious Assault Ship

體型巨大,進度驚人:中國首艘075兩棲攻擊艦順利下水



Some five months after the first pictures emerged of its keel under construction, China has launched its first Type 075 landing helicopter dock amphibious assault ship, or LHD, at the Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard in Shanghai. This achievement comes just days before the country marks the 70th anniversary of Communist state's founding. The speed with which the Chinese have been able to execute its construction is as impressive as the ship's size. The vessel will significantly increase the People's Liberation Army Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities, and the China State Shipbuilding Corporation is already building a second example.

在70周年國慶前夕,中國的第一艘075型兩棲登陸艦于上海的滬東造船廠成功下水。該艦從龍骨建造照片的首次披露,到完成下水,只花了短短的五個月時間。它的建造速度,正如其龐大的體型一樣,令人印象深刻。該艦的加入將大幅提升中國海軍的兩棲作戰能力。與此同時,075二號艦的建造也在如火如荼地進行著。

Dockworkers at Hudong-Zhonghua launched the still-unnamed Type 075 LHD after a ceremony on Sept. 25, 2019. Images began to emerge online of the ship's keel under construction between April and May 2019, though it is unclear when the China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) formally began work on the ship. Workers will now complete the final phases of construction with the vessel in the water. There is no word yet on when the Chinese expect it to head out for its first sea trials or actually enter service with the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN).

我們尚不清楚它開工的具體日期。直到在今年的4-5月,一些照片才陸續在網絡上出現。9月25日,在隆重的儀式過后,這艘尚未命名的戰艦在船廠工人的幫助下順利入水,剩余的曬裝工作將在水面中完成。截至目前,尚未有任何消息透露它將于何時海試,或者何時服役。



The Type 075 is also bigger and more capable than the Type 071 amphibious transport docks, or LPDs, which are presently the PLAN's largest operational amphibious warfare ships. The Type 071, which displaces around 25,000 tons, has a smaller flight deck at the stern and hangar space for up to four Z-8 heavy transport helicopters.

和中國海軍現役最大的兩棲作戰艦艇071型船塢登陸艦相比,075在尺寸以及性能上都有較大幅度的提升。與其相比,071的排水量只有約25000噸,船尾的飛行甲板更小,其機庫最多只能容納4架直-8重型運輸直升機。

By comparison, the new LHD will have a dedicated hangar deck below its flight deck and will reportedly be able to carry between 28 and 30 helicopters of various types, including the Z-8 and the smaller Z-9 utility and light attack helicopters. China does not have any short takeoff and vertical landing capable combat jets at present, but it is at least exploring this possibility and the Type 075 could already have design features to support fixed-wing operations in the future.

075在甲板下方擁有專用的機庫。根據報道,它可以容納28-30架各型直升機,包括直-8和更小的直-9輕型攻擊直升機。雖然中國還沒有短距起飛或垂直起降的噴氣式戰機,但是它正在嘗試這種可能性,075也很有可能為固定翼戰機的使用預留了空間。

It is not clear how many Marines the Type 075 will be able to accommodate, but its full complement will likely be much larger than that of the Type 071, which can carry between 600 and 800 troops, as well as their ground vehicles and other equipment. The U.S. Navy's Wasp class, for example, can carry 1,650 Marines, along with their light armored and unarmored vehicles and other equipment. Similar to the American ships, China's new LHD also has a well deck that can hold multiple Type 726 air cushion landing craft – roughly analogous to the U.S. Navy's LCAC – in order to move personnel, vehicles, and other cargo ashore.

071型船塢登陸艦可以搭載600-800名士兵,包括他們的車輛和裝備。我們還不清楚075能夠搭載的士兵數量,但可以肯定的是,它會比071多得多。以排水量相仿的美國黃蜂級為例,它可以搭載1650名陸戰隊員,包括其車輛和裝備。此外,和美國的艦艇相似,075載有多艘726型氣墊登陸艇,用以運送人員、車輛和其它貨物上岸。

The exact armament fit on the Type 075, including systems for self-defense, is also unknown. Reports say that it will include at least two H/PJ-11 30mm close-in weapon systems (CIWS), also known as the Type 730, and a pair of FL-3000N point defense surface-to-air missile systems. Pictures of the ship at its launch ceremony, and in the days and weeks before, show what appears to be at least one FL-3000N in place at the stern and one forward of the ship's island superstructure. A Type 1130 CIWS is also seen amidships on its port side.

對于075的具體設備,包括防衛系統,我們同樣一無所知。根據以往的報道,它至少裝有兩套H/PJ-11型30毫米近防武器系統(也稱1130近防炮),以及兩套FL-3000N點防御艦空導彈系統(也稱海紅旗10)。跟據下水時、以及數周前的照片顯示,在船尾部分,至少有一座疑似FL-3000N的防空導彈系統已經安裝到位,另一座導彈系統位于艦島的前方,一門1130近防炮則裝在了左舷的中部。

Regardless of how much the ship actually displaces and what its exact capabilities are, what may be most impressive about it is China's ability to proceed so fast with its construction. Chinese shipyards have already demonstrated their ability to produce large surface warships with relative rapidity, but work on the Type 075 has progressed at a particularly fast pace. For comparison, it took three years between keel-laying and launch to build the U.S. Navy's second in class USS Tripoli (LHA-7). Also, keep in mind that the U.S. has been building flattop amphibious assault ships for the better part of a century. This is China's first.

不管075確切的排水量和性能如何,最令人印象深刻的是中國的造船速度。事實已經證明,中國的造船廠能以較快的速度建造大型水面戰艦。盡管如此,075的進度仍然顯得非比尋常。與之相比,為了建造“美國”級兩棲攻擊艦“的黎波里”號,從鋪設龍骨到下水,美國花了三年的時間。更何況美國擁有長達一個世紀的建造兩棲攻擊艦的經驗,而中國則是首次。



This could extend beyond traditional military operations. American amphibious warfare ships have historically been a go-to option for extracting U.S. citizens from countries experiencing sudden and violent upheaval and a vital tool for responding to natural disasters. PLAN amphibious warfare groups built around Type 075s could similarly help rescue Chinese nationals, who are working in ever-increasing numbers in potential hotspots around the world, or respond to humanitarian crisis at home and overseas. China already employs its Type 920 hospital ship as a valuable soft-power tool.

兩棲攻擊艦的作用不僅僅局限于傳統軍事層面。在歷史上,美國的兩棲攻擊艦曾經是從動亂國家撤僑的首選,也是應對自然災害的重要工具。中國海軍以075為核心的兩棲編隊也可以執行類似的任務,幫助全球各地越來越多的中國公民撤離可能的熱點地區,或者對國內外的人道主義?;齔魷煊?。中國已經將920型醫療船作為體現自身軟實力的有利工具。

With the Type 075's construction proceeding so quickly, it is very possible that the ship will be ready for sea trials relatively soon. At the same time, we may begin to learn more about its exact features in the coming months now that the lead example of the class is in the water and will be getting fitted out.

由于建造工作進展迅速,075進行海試的日期并不遙遠。同時,在接下來的數月里,隨著曬裝工作的進行,我們對它的了解也將更進一步。

No matter what, the Type 075's launch is simply another clear demonstration of China's desire and ability to increase the size and scope of its naval capabilities, with a clear eye toward operations further and further from Chinese shores.

無論如何,中國一直致力于加強海軍的規模與實力,075的下水僅僅是這種渴望與能力的又一個縮影。他們的目光早已遠離了中國的海岸,并且越來越遠。