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查爾斯·達爾文:《人類的起源》,《與性別有關的選擇》(倫敦:企鵝出版社,2004年,再版,倫敦:約翰·默里出版社,1879年)。

Western intellectual life today ischaracterized by a marked schizophrenia. On the one hand, virtually everyoneaccepts the scientific theory of Charles Darwin concerning the emergence and evolutionof the various species in the world, including humanity, through the processnatural selection. The only exceptions to this rule are a few Creationisthold-outs. On the other hand, our culture denies the biological reality of raceand the relevance of hereditarian thinking to human societies. Our egalitarianculture rejects heredity’s implications intoto — both the descriptive (in-born human differences betweenindividuals and races) and prescriptive (e.g. eugenics). Given how tabooracialist thinking still is, it is then useful — in order to think freely — togo back to the roots of evolutionary thinking by looking at what Darwin himselfhad to say about human evolution and racial differences.

今天西方知識分子的生活以明顯的精神分裂癥為特征。一方面,幾乎每個人都接受達爾文的科學理論,即通過自然選擇的過程,世界上包括人類在內的各種物種的出現和進化。這條規則的唯一例外是一些堅持神創論的人。
另一方面,我們的文化否認種族的生物學現實和遺傳思想與人類社會的相關性。我們的平等主義文化拒絕遺傳在“toto”中的暗示——無論是描述性的(個體和種族之間與生俱來的人類差異)還是說明性的(例如優生學)。
鑒于種族主義思想仍然是禁忌,那么,為了自由思考,通過觀察達爾文本人對人類進化和種族差異的看法,回到進化思維的根源上來,是很有用的。

The concept of race or lineage is central toDarwin’s evolutionary thinking. His classic The Origin of Species is indeed subtitled By Means of Natural Selection of thePreservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. In oneplace, Darwin defines a race as the “successive generations” of a particularpopulation (102). Darwin’s model for evolutionary change is simple andpowerful: every species will tend to bear too many offspring, leading tooverpopulation, a huge percentage of these will die before reaching maturity orin competition with others (whether of the same species or not), those whosurvive this struggle will be those with the traits best suited for theirparticular environment. The constant generation and culling of “races,” that isto say new of populations with different traits, is then central to his system,which also applies to human evolution.

種族或血統的概念是達爾文進化思想的核心。他的經典著作《物種起源》的副標題確實是通過自然選擇的方式,在為生存而斗爭的過程中保留了所喜愛的種族。在一個地方,達爾文把一個種族定義為一個特定種群(102)的“后代”。
達爾文的進化模型簡單而強大: 每一個物種都會傾向于生育過多的后代,導致物種數量過剩,其中很大一部分會在成熟前死亡,或者在與其他物種競爭(無論是否屬于同一物種)時死亡, 那些在這場斗爭中幸存下來的將是那些最適合他們特定環境的。
不斷產生和淘汰“種族”,也就是具有不同特征的新種群,是這個系統的核心,這也適用于人類進化。



Darwin takes differences in intellectualability for granted, both between individuals and races: “The variability ordiversity of the mental faculties in men of the same race, not to mention thegreater differences between the men of distinct races, is so notorious that nota word need here be said” (45). Furthermore: “The individuals of the samespecies graduate in intellect from absolute imbecility to high excellence”(100). He had no doubt that psychological traits such as personality andintelligence were heritable:

達爾文認為智力上的差異是理所當然的,無論是個體之間還是種族之間:同種族的人智力的多變性或多樣性,更不用說不同種族的人之間更大的差異,它是如此臭名昭著,在此無需贅述
此外,“同一物種的個體在智力上從絕對低能到卓越”(100)。他毫不懷疑,人格和智力等心理特征是可以遺傳的:

Inregard to mental qualities, their transmission is manifest in our dogs, horses,and other domestic animals.[2] Besidesspecial tastes and habits, general intelligence, courage, bad and good temper,&c., are certainly transmitted. With man we see similar facts in almostevery family; and we now know through the admirable labours of Mr [Francis]Galton, that genius which implies a wonderfully complex combination of highfaculties, tends to be inherited; and, on the other hand, it is too certainthat insanity and deteriorated mental powers likewise run in families. . . .
Domesticatedanimals vary more than those in a state of nature; and this is apparently dueto the diversified and changing nature of the conditions to which they havebeen subjected. In this respect the different races of man resembledomesticated animals, and so do the individuals of the same race, wheninhabiting a very wide area, like that of America. We see the influence ofdiversified conditions in the more civilised nations; for the members belongingto different grades of rank, and following different occupations, present agreater range of character than do the members of barbarous nations. (45–46)

就精神素質而言,它們的傳播在我們的狗、馬和其他家畜身上表現得很明顯。除了特殊的品味和習慣,一般的智力、勇氣、壞脾氣和好脾氣,等等。,當然是可以傳遞的。對于人類,我們在幾乎每個家庭中都看到了類似的事實;我們現在通過(弗朗西斯)高爾頓先生令人欽佩的努力知道,天才意味著高級官能奇妙而復雜的結合,往往是遺傳的; 另一方面,可以肯定的是,精神錯亂和退化的精神力量同樣存在于家庭之中……

家養動物比自然狀態下的動物變化更大;這顯然是由于他們所受條件的多樣性和不斷變化的性質。在這方面,人類的不同種族就像馴養的動物一樣,當人類居住在一個非常廣闊的地區時,就像美國一樣,同一種族的個體也是如此。我們看到,在文明程度更高的國家,多樣化的環境產生了影響;對于屬于不同等級、從事不同職業的成員來說,他們比野蠻民族的成員具有更廣泛的特征。(第45 – 46頁)

Humanity’s Moral Improvement Through PerpetualTribal Warfare
Darwinasserts that the same relentless struggle for survival was the driver forhumanity’s evolution into a more intelligent, social, and even moral being.Human tribes spread across the globe, reproduced beyond the ability of theirenvironment to sustain them, and entered into relentless competition andwarfare with other tribes.
Darwinconsiders the emergence of pro-social traits such as sympathy, love of kin,shame, and regret to be central to human evolution. These feelings werecertainly not universal however. He observes that prehistoric tribes, likemodern savage tribes, were perpetually at war with one another. “It is noargument against savage man being a social animal, that the tribes inhabitingadjacent districts are almost always at war with each other; for the socialinstincts never extend to all the individuals of the same species” (132).

達爾文斷言,為了生存而進行的不懈斗爭,同樣是也推動了人類進化成為一個更聰明、更社會化、甚至更有道德的存在。人類部落遍布全球,繁衍生息超出了環境的承受能力,并與其他部落展開了無情的競爭和戰爭。
達爾文認為,諸如同情、親情、羞恥和遺憾等親社會特征的出現是人類進化的核心。然而,這些感受肯定不是普遍的。他觀察到史前部落,就像現代的野蠻部落一樣,永遠處于戰爭狀態?!熬幼≡諏誚厙牟柯浼負踝蓯腔ハ啻蛘?,這并不是反對野人是一種社會性動物的理由;因為社會本能從來不會延伸到同一物種的所有個體"



亞馬遜的一個“與世隔絕的部落”對直升機做出反應。

Darwinfirmly believes that group selection was the mechanism by which many humanpsychological traits emerged. Group selection means that traits not necessarilybeneficial to the individual but rather to the group (such as altruism) spreadthrough competition between groups (forinstance: one tribe defeats and exterminates another tribe through itsindividuals’ superior willingness to sacrifice themselves). The group selectionhypothesis is considered controversial today in some evolutionary circles.Darwin for his part wrote:
A community which includes a large number of well-endowedindividuals increases in number, and is victorious over other less favouredones; even although each separate member gains no advantage over the others ofthe same community . . . [Certain mental] faculties have been chiefly, or evenexclusively, gained for the benefit of the community, and the individualsthereof, have at the same time gained an advantage indirectly. (83)



When two tribes of prim man, living inthe same country, came into competition, if (other circumstances being equal)the one tribe included a great number of courageous, sympathetic and faithfulmembers, who were always ready to warn each other of danger, to aid and defendeach other, this tribe would succeed better and conquer the other. Let it beborn in mind how all-important in the never-ceasing wars of savages, fidelityand courage must be. . . . Selfish and contentious people will not cohere, andwithout coherence nothing can be effected. A tribe rich in the above qualitieswould spread and be victorious over other tribes: but in the course of time itwould, judging from all past history, be in its turn overcome by some othertribe still more highly endowed. Thus the social and moral qualities wouldslowly to advance and be diffused throughout the world.
Darwin also argued that humans had an in-bornproclivity for other pro-social behaviors, such as language and religiosity.

當兩個原始部落的人,生活在同一個國家,進入競爭,如果一個部落(其他情況不變)包含大量勇敢,同情和忠誠的成員,他們時刻準備著互相警告危險,互相幫助和?;?,這個部落會取得更大的成功,并征服對方。
讓它誕生在腦海中,在野蠻人永不停息的戰爭中,忠誠和勇氣是多么的重要……自私和有爭議的人不會團結一致,沒有團結一致,什么也辦不成。一個擁有以上品質的部落將會擴張并戰勝其他部落,但從過去的歷史來看,隨著時間的推移,它將會被其他更有天賦的部落所征服。這樣,社會和道德品質就會慢慢提高,并擴散到世界各地。
達爾文還認為,人類天生具有其他親社會行為的傾向,比如語言和宗教信仰。

Adaptive Traditional Culture
Mankind’sspecificity is also in being both a genetic and profoundly cultural being. Our individual andcollective behavior are powerfully influenced by both our genetic inheritanceand our particular, highly-fungible cultural norms and practices. We wouldexpect the tribes with both a genetic propensity and a culture favoringgroup-solidarity and organization to overcome less well-endowed tribes.
[A]n increase in the number of well-endowedmen and an advancement in the standard of morality will certainly give animmense advantage to one tribe over another. A tribe including many memberswho, from possessing in a high degree the spirit of patriotism, fidelity,obedience, courage, and sympathy, were always ready to aid one another, and tosacrifice themselves for the common good, would be victorious over most othertribes; and this would be natural selection. (157)

自適應傳統文化
人類的特殊性還體現在它既是一種遺傳的存在,又是一種深刻的文化存在。我們的個人和集體行為受到我們的遺傳和我們獨特的、高度可替代的文化規范和實踐的強烈影響。我們期望那些具有遺傳傾向和文化傾向的部落能夠戰勝那些不那么富裕的部落,這些部落更傾向于群體團結和組織。

增加有天賦的人的數量和道德標準的提高肯定會給一個部落帶來巨大的優勢。一個包括許多成員的部落,由于具有高度的愛國主義、忠誠、服從、勇氣和同情精神,總是樂于互相幫助,為了共同的利益犧牲自己——將戰勝大多數其他部落。這就是自然選擇。



Nature’s Communitarian Ethos
Darwinpersonally adhered to a liberal, high-minded and humane Christian-inspiredmorality typical of the Victorian middle classes. Yet, he cannot help butobserve that nature’s law is extremely cruel, with the proverbial “favoredraces” often triumphing through a ruthless ethos brutally subordinating theinterests of the individual to that of the group. Darwin takes the example ofbees, an even more social animal than humans, who when under resource pressureexterminate superfluous individuals:
In the same manner as various animals have some sense of beauty,though they admire widely different objects, so they might have a have sense ofright and wrong, though led by it to follow widely different lines of conduct.If, for instance, to take an extreme case, men were reared under precisely thesame conditions as hive-bees, there can hardly be a doubt that our unmarriedfemales would, like the worker-bees, think it a sacred duty to kill theirbrothers, and mothers would strive to kill their fertile daughters; and no onewould think of interfering.

達爾文個人堅持自由、高尚和人道的“基督教啟發的道德典型”的維多利亞中產階級。然而,他不得不注意到,自然法則是極其殘酷的,眾所周知,“受歡迎的種族”往往通過一種無情的風氣取得勝利,這種風氣殘酷地將個人的利益置于群體的利益之下。達爾文以蜜蜂為例,蜜蜂是一種比人類更社會化的動物,當面臨資源壓力時,它們會消滅多余的個體:

就像各種動物都有一定的美感一樣,雖然它們欣賞的對象千差萬別,所以它們可能也有對與錯的感覺,盡管在這種感覺的引導下,它們的行為舉止大相徑庭。舉個極端的例子,如果男人在和蜜蜂完全相同的環境下長大,毫無疑問,我們的未婚女性會像工蜂一樣,認為殺死她們的兄弟是神圣的責任,而母親會努力殺死她們能生育的女兒;沒有人會想要干涉。

Darwinadds in a footnote that primitive human patterns are quite similar: “many ormost savages [solve] the problem by female infanticide, polyandry andpromiscuous intercourse” (122). (From a strictly evolutionary point of view, ahuman community under pressure from other tribes and a poor environment maybenefit from fewer females, preferring to dedicate scarce resources to fightingmales.)
Darwin’scritics were quite cognizant of the potential threat posed by his theory toliberal and Christian ethics. He writes:
Miss Cobbe, in commenting (‘Darwinism and his Morals’ ‘TheologicalReview’, April, 1872, pp. 188-191) on the same illustration, says, the principles of social duty would bethus reversed; and by this, I presume, she means that the fulfillment of socialduty would tend to the injury of individuals; but she overlooks the fact, whichshe would doubtless admit, that the instincts of the bee have been acquired forthe good of the community. She goes so far as to say that if the theory ofethics advocated in this chapter were ever generally accepted, ‘I cannot butbelieve that in the hour of their triumph would be sounded the knell of thevirtue of mankind!’ It is to be hoped that the belief in the permanence ofvirtue on this earth is not held by many persons on so weak a tenure.

達爾文在腳注中補充說,原始人類的模式非常相似:“許多或大多數野蠻人通過殺害女嬰、一夫多妻制和濫交來解決這個問題?!保ù友細竦慕鄣憷純?,一個處于其他部落壓力和惡劣環境下的人類社區可能會從女性這里受益更少,而更愿意將稀缺的資源投入到與男性的戰斗中。)
達爾文的批評者非常清楚他的理論對自由主義和基督教倫理的潛在威脅。他寫道:

科布小姐在評論(《達爾文主義和他的道德》,《神學評論》,1872年)同一幅插圖時說,社會責任的原則將因此而顛倒; 我想,她的意思是,履行社會責任往往會對個人造成傷害;但她忽略了一個事實,她肯定會承認,蜜蜂的本能是為了群體的利益而獲得的。她甚至說,如果本章所提倡的倫理理論曾經被普遍接受,“我不得不相信,在他們勝利的時刻,將敲響人類美德的喪鐘!” ……

Darwin observes that animal communities arecollectivist and hierarchically organized, with different roles according tothe nature of each individual, so as to optimize collective well-being andsurvival. When threatened, bull bison form a ring around the herd, protectingthe young and females in the center (124). Put another way, the herdinstinctively and collectively discriminates againstmales, putting their security at risk, so that the herd as a whole benefitsfrom their superior strength and the sacrifice of their reduced reproductivue (sperm is far more easily replaced than ovaries).

達爾文觀察到,動物群落是集體主義的、層級化的組織,根據每個個體的性質有不同的角色,從而優化集體的福祉和生存。當受到威脅時,野?;崳С梢蝗?,?;ぶ行牡撓揍毯湍敢芭?。
換句話說,野牛群本能地、集體地歧視雄性,使它們的安全處于危險之中,因此,作為一個整體,受益于它們的強大力量和犧牲它們相對廉價的生殖價值(精子比卵巢更容易被取代)。

Darwinadds that both herd animals and human tribes exterminate weaker members topromote the survival of the group:
[Animals] will expel a wounded animal from their herd, or gore orworry it to death. This is almost the blackest fact in natural history, unless,indeed, the explanation which has been suggested is true, that their instinctor reason leads them to expel an injured companion, lest beasts of prey,including man, should be tempted to follow the troop. In this case theirconduct is not much worse than that of the North American Indians, who leavetheir feeble comrades to perish on the plains; or the Fijians, who, when theirparents get old, or fall ill, bury them alive.

達爾文補充說,群居動物和人類部落都滅絕較弱的成員,以促進群體的生存:
動物會把受傷的動物趕出他們的獸群,或者把它弄得鮮血淋漓,或者把它折磨致死。這幾乎是自然史上最令人發指的事實,除非所提出的解釋是正確的,即他們的本能或理性促使他們驅逐受傷的同伴,以免包括人類在內的猛獸受到引誘而追隨他們的隊伍。在這種情況下,他們的行為并不比北美印第安人差多少,北美印第安人把他們軟弱的同伴留在平原上自生自滅;或者斐濟人,當他們的父母老了,或者生病了,把他們活埋。



Today, even seven decades after World War II,in the background of all this looms the legacy of Adolf Hitler. Evolutionaryand hereditary principles were widely accepted in the early twentieth century.In that intellectual and cultural context, Hitler transformed his nationpolitically and culturally, believing that a zealous, communitarian, warlike,expansionary, racial, and ethno-nationalist ethos would enable Germany’ssalvation and the biological and spiritual improvement of mankind. Hitlerbelieved his leadership and politics adhered closely to what he called “the lawof life.”[6] It is indeed an uncomfortable fact formany evolutionists that many of passages in Mein Kampf are eerily reminiscent of Darwin’s ownaccount of human history, in particular the emergence of morality through eonsof tribal warfare.

今天,甚至在第二次世界大戰結束70年后,在這一切的背景下,阿道夫·希特勒的遺產依然隱約可見。進化和遺傳原則在20世紀早期被廣泛接受。在這樣的知識和文化背景下,希特勒在政治和文化上改變了他的國家,他相信一個熱心的、社群主義的、好戰的、擴張的、種族主義的和民族主義的精神將使德國獲得救贖,使人類的生理和精神得到改善。希特勒相信他的領導和政治嚴格遵循他所謂的“生命法則”。 對許多進化論者來說,《我的奮斗》中的許多段落都令人毛骨悚然地回憶起達爾文對人類歷史的描述,尤其是通過亙古的部落戰爭而出現的道德,這確實是一個令人不安的事實。

Inthe end, Darwin seems to endorse a communitarian ethic moderated and informedby reason (my emphasis):
In the case of the lower animals it seems much more appropriate tospeak of their social instincts, as having been developed for the general goodrather than for the general happiness of the species. The term, general good, may be defined as the rearing of the greatest numberof individuals in full vigour and health, with all their faculties perfect,under the conditions to which they are subjected.As the social instincts both of man and the lower animals have no doubt beendeveloped by nearly the same steps, it would be advisable to take as thestandard of morality, the general good or welfare of the community, rather thanthe general happiness; but this definition would perhaps require somelimitation account of political ethics.



The ideas of Locke and Rousseau — extollingequality, rights, and the popular will as ends-in-themselves — have led to perpetualconfusion among our people and to our inexorable collapse since the beginningthe twentieth century. In 1914, we essentially dominated the world and made upa third of human population. Before 2100, a blink of an eye in historical letalone evolutionary terms, we will have lost control not only of our colonialempires but even of our own homelands, being reduced to minorities in not onlyNorth America but even Western Europe. We will make up less than 5 percent ofthe global population. The triumph of liberal-democracy’s individualist andegalitarian principles have coincided with Europeans’ evolutionary suicide.

自20世紀初以來,洛克和盧梭的思想——頌揚平等、權利和人民的意愿,認為它們是終極目標——已經在我們的人民中間造成了永久的混亂,并導致了我們不可阻擋的崩潰。1914年,我們基本上統治了世界,占世界人口的三分之一。在2100年之前,我們不僅會失去對殖民帝國的控制,甚至會失去對自己家園的控制,不僅在北美,甚至在西歐,我們都將淪為少數民族。我們將占全球人口不到5%。自由民主的個人主義和平等主義原則的勝利與歐洲人的自殺式進化不謀而合。